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The Health and Wellness Industry FAQ: Small Budget – What Should I Do First?

Wellness Exists at the intersection of Contentment and Aspiration.

To live  there, You Must First Choose to Move Out of the Village of Someday…


Over the years I’ve been asked a number of questions about the health and wellness industry. This is question #8 of the top 10 most frequently asked questions. The responses are, of course, neither right nor wrong. They are simply my impressions from over 35 years of field experience.

QUESTION #8: “If you had the barest of budgets but were charged with the responsibility of improving employee health, what activity or initiative would be number one on your list?”

RESPONSE: I strongly believe that hours spent at the workplace are the easiest to design and control. With the stroke of a pen a CEO can create a:

As a CEO, I may not be able to dictate what you do the other sixteen hours but I can certainly shape the environment and promote a healthy agenda when it’s on my time and my dime. When you’re in charge, you get to make the rules.

Today’s CEO gets to call the shots. If they want Free-Fruit-Fridays and a smoke-free campus, all they have to do is say so. As long as they conform to the letter of the law (and, in a union shop, provisions agreed to in collective bargaining) corporate rulers get to rule, absolutely. Healthy food in cafeterias, safe and inviting stairwells, health awareness campaigns and flu clinics are easy to administer and the cost is minimal. Creating a smoke-free campus and banning sugar sodas, candy dishes and high-sugar-high-fat celebration “treats” costs nothing more than the courage and conviction needed to make it so.

So, my answer is, “Create a Healthy Corporate Culture.” Now, if you have additional dollars, here are numbers two through ten:

2.  Personal Health Surveys, Biometric Screenings and Follow-Up Counseling

3.  Healthy Heart Awareness, Education and Intervention Classes

  • nutrition and weight control (both over and under weight)
  • exercise (yoga, stretching, aerobics, light resistance)
  • stress management
  • tobacco cessation

4.  Link Insurance Premium Contribution to Wellness Activities and Metrics

5.  Employer Sponsored Healthy Competition Campaigns

6.  Subsidizing Fitness Club Memberships

7.  Healthy Employee Recognitions and Rewards

8.  Financial Management

9.   Healthy Babies and Parenting Skills

10. On-Site Fitness Center

The Health and Wellness Industry FAQ: Vendors – How Do You Sort Out the Good, Bad and Truly Ugly?

Wellness Exists at the intersection of Contentment and Aspiration.

To live  there, You Must First Choose to Move Out of the Village of Someday…


Over the years I’ve been asked a number of questions about the health and wellness industry. This is question #7 of the top 10 most frequently asked questions. The responses are, of course, neither right nor wrong. They are simply my impressions from over 35 years of field experience.


“We are bombarded with individuals and organizations selling wellness (health promotion, disease prevention and disease management) products and services.  How do you sort out the good, bad and truly ugly?”


Thirty years ago, there were only a handful of quality programs available through national vendors. Choice was not that difficult. Today, with the growth of the Internet and the flood of scientific data, there are hundreds of vendors anxious to sell you their services.

Caution: A “Desk Drawer” wellness initiative will burn out your staff and simply will not work (tweak…maybe…but not transform). Avoid a scattergun or one-off approach. Success requires a dedicated internal project manager working with an experienced and field-tested 360 degree vendor.

Questions to ask include:

  • How long have you been in business?
  • Who are the individuals behind the products?
  • Do you have an advisory board? If so, who are the members?
  • Can you prove net health care and/or productivity cost reductions while improving population health?
  • Any accreditations and/or awards?
  • Are you open to risk sharing or pay-for-performance contract provisions?
  • What are the delivery options?
  • What outcome analytics are in place to track program results?
  • Who are your client references?

A vendor should be much more than a provider of drop-off products and services. They need to be comprehensive, accessible, flexible and experienced. Sound simple? It’s not. Due to limited dollars, you need as much quality one-stop-shopping as possible. You do not have the time, dollars or energy to have multiple contacts for each of your offerings. Find an experienced multi-component provider and stick with them. They will not only help you with paperwork and sanity, they will also help with triage, crossover, data collection, analysis and strategic planning. Like a good pharmacist, they will also help you avoid unhealthy program interactions. An excellent provider will have a pattern, philosophy and support network that is consistent throughout their offerings; this will help you, immensely. A good vendor is, at a minimum, equal to one FTE.

The ideal vendor should be able to assist clients with each and every phase of a  “comprehensive” wellness initiative, including:

  • A health awareness component, including health education, preventive screenings and health risk assessments.
  • Marketing and promotion efforts to maximize employee participation and engagement.
  • Research supported programs and methodologies to change unhealthy behaviors and lifestyle choices, including counseling, seminars, online programs and self-help materials.
  • Supportive environment efforts, including assistance with workplace policies to encourage healthy lifestyles, healthy eating, increased physical activity and improved mental health.

Introducing excellent programs without a comprehensive corporate audit (readiness) and indicated culture adjustments ⎯ policies, procedures, senior management visible buy-in and health-driven food services ⎯ is akin to throwing fertile seed on untilled and nutrient-poor soil. It won’t work; you will lose money and credibility.


The Health and Wellness Industry FAQ: What is “Wellness?”

 Wellness Exists at the intersection of Contentment and Aspiration. To live  there, You Must First Choose to Move Out of the Village of Someday…



Over the years I’ve been asked a number of questions about the health and wellness industry. This is question #6 of the top 10 most frequently asked questions. The responses are, of course, neither right nor wrong. They are simply my impressions from over 35 years of field experience.

QUESTION #6: There seems to be confusion as to what is “Wellness.” How do you define it?

RESPONSE: This is a very important question. As I have stated before, if you fail to level-set a conversation by defining the term for all parties, “wellness” can be an amorphous, dangerous and distracting word:  For example, when used as an antonym for sickness the term loses punch and significance because it’s not measurable.  How does “wellness” translate into dollars?  The argument goes, “I get that ‘sickness’ means missing work, incurring medical expenses and running-up pharmacy costs, but what are the savings or, absence of cost, that comes with being well?”  Without context, the value of “Wellness” is too slippery to measure. As a result, it  is often the first to feel the blade of budget cutbacks. Far from fluff and waste, WELLNESS is an umbrella descriptor for programs, policies and initiatives that promote health, prevent certain diseases and compress morbidity (shorten length of illness).  Wellness is both an objective and subjective incremental state of wellbeing with infinite variations. Brush up on your Edington, Goetzel, O’Donnell, Pronk and Chapman research and frame your discussion in terms of benefits…not features:

  • Increased productivity
  • Reduced Absenteeism
  • Bending (or Flattening) Healthcare Cost Trends
  • Recruiting Top Talent
  • Retaining Key Employees
  • Improving Community Quality of Life
  • And more…

Here are my definitions of individual as well as community (including worksite) wellness:

well·ness, \ˈwel-nəs\: a dynamic objective and subjective progression toward a state of complete physical, intellectual, emotional, spiritual and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.  Incremental improvements can occur from pre-conception up to and including a person’s last breath 

Using this definition, community wellness, by extension, is:

any activity, policy, attitude, and physical plant circumstance that facilitates a person’s progression toward complete physical, intellectual, emotional, spiritual and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of harm.

And, yes, I know, COMPLETE actualization is not going to happen in this lifetime.  It is the continuous progression of incremental (mostly small) improvements that we seek to achieve and—particularly important to CFOs—measure.


“We are bombarded with individuals and organizations selling wellness (health promotion, disease prevention and disease management) products and services. 

How do you sort out the good, bad and truly ugly?”

The Health and Wellness Industry: FAQ Part I

Frequently Asked Questions: Part I

The Health and Wellness Industry

 Wellness Exists at the intersection of Contentment and Aspiration. To live  there, You Must First Choose to Move Out of the Village of Someday



Over the years I’ve been asked a number of questions about the health and wellness industry. This is Part I of a two-part commentary featuring the top 10 most frequently asked questions. The responses are, of course, neither right nor wrong. They are simply my impressions from over 35 years of field experience.

QUESTION #1: Reflecting on your experience as a former senior executive in the health insurance industry, did the industry’s less-than-favorable profile with members adversely impact your ability to deliver health and wellness products and messages?

RESPONSE: While it is true that people often view insurance (of any kind) as a necessary evil, it’s important to remember that living a healthy lifestyle benefits everyone. When the payer is the employer, assuming fully-insured, the return is in the form of productivity and a favorable bargaining position when it comes to renewal discussions. When the payer is an individual, the return is improved quality of life, reduced out-of-pocket expenses, and the potential for marginal annual premium increases.

Quite frankly, I had more of a challenge “selling” the health and wellness message internally than I did to the community at large. In general, the health insurance industry is decidedly conservative and tends to change slowly and with considerable resistance.  Historically (and simplistically), the focus of the health insurance industry is claims processing; a transactional activity centered on collecting premium dollars from payers and using the funds to pay healthcare providers. The insurers retain administrative and reserve dollars to cover operating expenses and to protect against unforeseen and catastrophic future claims.

Wellness (community health promotion and disease prevention) is a relatively new activity with weak controls and questioned/skeptical return on investment. Most, if not all, insurers agree that they should provide these services—if only because members request/demand that they do—but few have applied the rigorous business standards needed to justify and grow “Wellness” as a necessary cost of doing business and/or as an independent profit silo. By and large, the general public understands the value of living a healthy life; it’s the inside corporate folks that still need convincing.

QUESTION #2: Assuming support and commitment to wellness as a cost of doing business and/or a potential profit center, how does an insurance company influence members to make healthy lifestyle choices and to participate in program offerings?   

RESPONSE: In a variety of ways including:

  • Premium discounts for participation in wellness programs, i.e., health risk assessments, tobacco control, weight management.
  • Promoting healthy living in their member communications, advertisements, and promotions.
  • Offering physician incentives based on prevention interactions with patients.

Keep in mind that social marketing (selling an intangible) is, increasingly, just as much about science as it is about art. Study, understand and apply lessons learned from the emerging field of behavioral economics. We are under the false impression that we are rational beings who emote instead of the fact that we are emotional beings with the capacity to think rationally … and even more importantly, meta-rationally.

QUESTION #3: In your opinion, what makes a health and wellness initiative successful and how do you measure the success of health and wellness initiatives?

RESPONSE: The five key features of a successful (sustainable) corporate health initiative are as follows:

  1. High Participation ( > 80% )
  2. Measurable Results Demonstrating either Biometric Improvement or Symptom & Medical Event Stability (Zero Trends)
  3. Alignment with the Corporate Mission & Vision
  4. A Supportive Corporate Culture (infrastructure) including Physical Plant, Cafeteria Choices, Senior and Middle Management Participation and Encouragement
  5. True Transformation and Design Focus from A Corporate Health Initiative Driven by Wellness Programs, Supportive Policies and Management Endorsement to A Population of Healthy People driven by Subjective Wellbeing, Healthy Habits, and Sustained Engagement

Organizations must frame wellness in context and in consort with their corporate mission and margin. Does the “Wellness Strategy” contribute to key employee retention and acquisition? Does it show measurable impact on the claims experience (including that of dependents)? Does it serve to bend the healthcare cost trend? Do employees enjoy the programs and participate in significant numbers? Does it support the company’s mission, vision, and core principals? Keep in mind the fact that subjective, as well as objective, measurements determine success.

In the first year of a wellness strategy, success may be measured by participation alone. However, beginning as early as year two, a successful program needs to show value beyond participation. What percentage of smokers kicked the habit? Relative to claims data, do you see positive trending (or zero trending) in the areas of obesity, hypertension and high serum cholesterol? Is there a correlation between employee performance reviews and participation in the wellness program offerings?

It’s important to note that with a comprehensive initiative (designed with long-term mission and margin objectives in mind) you will actually see an increase in healthcare costs during the first couple of years. This is due to increased awareness, growing medical self-responsibility (age and gender appropriate screenings), early detection and early intervention. After three full years of operation, data shows that a comprehensive wellness initiative will provide a return in the area of 2:1 (two dollars saved for each dollar invested in the initiative). However, if the wellness strategy simply broke even, the company wins, everybody wins (accept the healthcare system that depends upon all of us presenting with illness early, often, and with increased complexity).

QUESTION #4: Is it possible to measure ROI?

RESPONSE: Yes, but it is also possible to measure DNA. DNA is a “Do Nothing at All” strategy. Since the year 2000, the cost of insuring a family of four has risen 114%. A “Do Nothing at All” strategy is simply not tenable. Primordial prevention and primary care cost pennies; secondary care and prevention costs dollars, and tertiary care ¾ associated with chronic illness ¾ cost bags of gold. This is another variation of the “Pay me now…or, pay me later” question.

To measure ROI, you need a 5Ws framework. You must ask and answer these questions:

  1. What’s Happening? – Current State Analysis
  2. So What? – Trends and Consequences
  3. What Do We Do Now? – Triage & Emergency Action Plan
  4. What Do We Do Next? – Strategic Intent and Tactical Plan ***
  5. What Difference Does it and Will it Make? – Continuous objective and subjective evaluation involving lifestyle-related claims monitoring, employee acceptance, participation rate, and measuring the correlation between participation and employee work performance evaluations.
*** Including:
  • attitude and interest surveys
  • personal health assessments
  • incentive and culture transformation strategy and plan
  • program component development/selection
  • launch rollout plan including promotion campaign

 Caution: Office politics are critical and numbers are slippery.


The CEO (or worse, the CFO) doesn’t buy into the basic intuitive logic or accept the published economic findings supporting the value of health promotion and disease prevention…


Middle management considers your initiative bothersome and counter-productive to their mission…

Your battle is doomed to fail. In fact, it maybe advisable to scrap or delay rollout until the “C” Suite and middle management are on-board.

QUESTION #5:  Nationally, are H&W programs starting to be considered core business (as opposed to “nice-to-have-but expendable” activities)?  If the answer’s yes, what’s driving this?  Health reform and its emphasis on prevention?  Group demand?  Other reasons?

RESPONSE: Yes. Reasons are many, including:

  • Employees expect worksite wellness programs as part of an insurance bundle (often at no additional fee).
  • Credible data supports health promotion, disease prevention initiatives.
  • Among the few areas of bipartisan agreement in the new Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA; P.L. 111‐148) are measures aimed at constraining the growth trend in medical treatment spending and costs through health and wellness promotion and prevention initiatives.

Essential Benefits, Elimination of CoPayments for Screenings and Preventative Care – Starting back in September of 2010, employer‐sponsored (and other) group health plans and health insurance issuers were prohibited from requiring co‐pays for all preventative services recommended by an independent expert panel, the United States Preventative Services Task Force. Co‐pays were also eliminated for certain recommended immunizations, breast cancer screenings, and other preventative care/screenings for women and children. However, this requirement does not apply to “grandfathered” health plans, which are defined in PPACA as any plan in which at least one individual was enrolled in as March 23, 2010.

Additionally, Congress put in place beginning in 2014 “essential health benefits requirements” that most individual, employer and Health Insurance Exchange plans must cover. The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) is tasked with defining the essential health benefits, however such benefits are required to include certain general categories, including: emergency services, hospitalization, maternity and newborn care, prescription drugs, laboratory services, mental health services, preventive and wellness services and chronic disease management.

Employee Wellness Discounts – Previously, a provision in the 1996 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (“HIPAA”) permitted employers to reduce the cost of health insurance premiums for employees practicing healthy behaviors. The provision, which provided for a reduction of up to 20% of the employees’ regular premium cost, allowed employers to reward workers who met certain criteria “reasonably designed to promote health and prevent disease.” This typically includes employees who refrain from smoking, maintain a healthy weight, and keep blood pressure and cholesterol levels low.

Starting January 1, 2014, the PPACA enhances such wellness discounts by permitting group health plans to give reductions of up to 30% of the cost of premiums to employees who participate in such wellness programs. This may be expanded to 50% subject to the discretion of the Secretary of HHS.

Employee Wellness Grants to Small BusinessThe law established $200 million in wellness grant funding to be distributed to eligible small employers for fiscal years 2011 to 2015. Eligible employers are defined as those who employ less than 100 employees that work 25 hours or more per week, and also who did not have a wellness program in place as of March 23, 2010 (the date of enactment).


It’s Time for The Health Promotion Elders to Give Back

It’s Time for The Health Promotion Elders to Give Back

 A couple months ago I wrote an essay about leadership and the importance of stepping out from the crowd to shout “Fraud!” “No!” “This is Crazy!” “Off with Their Heads!” and other bursts of honest reactions to dishonest (or, at the least, unexamined) acts, declarations and policies, or lack thereof.  I wrote about the value of being an irritant; a catalyst for change in a world gone soft, lazy, or, perhaps just very tired. Tired enough to allow their affect to shift from outraged and edgy to resigned and apathetic.

When the essay was published, Linda Thomas, from Tapestry Communications, reminded me that — in today’s shaky job market — such boldness, while important, may well land someone out the door and back on the streets. “…there are so many standing in line to take that job of the rabble-rouser.”

Again, quoting from Nancy’s note:

What that reality does is make the impetus for “the elders” ever more important. It is up to those who no longer depend on or are fearful of economic retaliation in terms of job loss or being ostracized from their position ‘at the table.’ These voices are powerful. Listen. They are out there. They are our self-published authors; makers of websites of truth; some even run for office (not many). They speak to groups who want to hear them. They have purity of message. They do not wear jackets with emblems endorsing brands and products. They do not give away pens that tout Pepsi or Coke. They are out there. They are writing blogs. And doing radio interviews. They are tenured professors. Listen to these voices when the roar of the crowd is still…and the pom-pommers have gone away.”

More than an excellent writer, she is spot on. If you are fortunate enough to have negotiated the professional health promotion labyrinth, grabbed the flag and descended from the mountaintop, you now have a responsibility (yes, the word is “responsibility”) to share what you have learned — the good, the bad and the truly ugly — with others. And, most important, as Nancy puts it, “…have purity of message.

With achievement comes debt. Give back to this industry; give back to anyone who can benefit from your experience. Be the voice of those who are not in a position to speak; for those who still cling to outrage and edgy while fighting off resignation and apathy.


Generational Coming-Of-Age Signature Events

Getting to Know Your Generations…

The following chart is my take on the ten critical events that helped shape each of the six generations that came-of-age (turned 18) beginning in 1900. These events are among those that dominated the headlines in US newspapers and influenced social, psychological, political and economic interactions at work, home and within the community at-large.

Besides being conversation starters and “On this Day…” factoid fillers, an awareness and basic understanding of these events — and their role in shaping the American consciousness —  is critical for anyone charged with and/or vested in cross-generation and cross-culture communication. This includes teachers, parents, supervisors, lawyers, marketers, religious leaders, politicians, city planners, product designers, healthcare providers and wellness professionals.  And, unless you’re living in a cave on the outskirts of Lost Springs, Wyoming, this includes you and your family.


Because of awareness and control factors, I prefer to use a coming-of-age parameter instead of  the customary — and variable — birth-year markers. For instance, in my case, I was born in 1948 making me an early member of the Baby Boomer generation. Certainly, the key events of the late 40s and the 1950s had an impact on my world but not, consciously, my worldview. Besides, what could I do? I was just a little kid growing up in Jamestown, New York.

Events like Israel becoming a State, World War II declared “officially” over, Castro overthrowing Batista, Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, and the launch of Sputnik took a backseat to family, friends, little league baseball, learning Altar-Boy-Latin and staying on the good side of the Good Sisters of Mercy who taught at Saints Peter & Paul school on North Main St.

As a mid-teen, I was intellectually aware of the Cuban Missile Crisis and deeply moved by the assassination of JFK. However, other than make noise, there still wasn’t much I could do. That changed when I legally came of age during the time of Vietnam, Mississippi Burning, the Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy assassinations, and the growing campus unrest. Converting awareness to action, I left home and enlisted in the military in 1967 at the age of 18 and in 1972 — 1st time eligible — I voted in my first presidential election. For me, 1948 (DOB)  initiated the age of birth, growth, and fundamental learning but 1966 (COA) ushered in the age of citizenship, opportunity, and action.

So What? & Who Cares?

Acknowledging, understanding, and respecting COA signature events pays dividends in many ways, including: gaining attention, advancing rapport, building trust, and enhancing existing relationships. So, next time — instead of profiling according to world-shaking events beginning with the person’s date of birth — go softer on those early years and concentrate on the key happenings that defined the start of their adult years.

Of course, there are also gender and cultural factors at play so do your homework in those areas, as well. More about gender and culture in future postings…

From “The Beaver” to “The Bieber”…

On The Lighter Side…Flowers for Friday

Wherever I go I take a camera. These are some of my favorite photos taken throughout the US plus shots from Africa, Peru, Cuba and Nepal. ENJOY and pass on to someone who you think might enjoy some FLOWERS FOR FRIDAY.


Video Introduction: THE VILLAGE OF SOMEDAY

Video Introduction:

Saturday Morning Reflections: The Village of Someday

Reflections: Are You Stuck in the Village of Someday?


“Don’t put off until tomorrow what can easily be put off till the day-after-tomorrow just as well.”

– Mark Twain

What is this fear that pushes our once child-like, playful, carefree, glee to the sidelines?

Memories? Early impressions?

Was it mom’s look when you brought home a “D” in Chemistry? Father Tobin when he caught you sipping sacramental wine? Coach Palmer’s frown when you walked-in the winning run? Or, maybe it was Gloria Wilson, from history class, who laughed when you asked her if she’d like to go see My Fair Lady with you at the Michigan Theater?

Okay, enough about me.

But, what causes this transformation from “Let me in, coach!” to “That’s okay, I’ll just sit over here and watch.” Yes, it’s fear of failure, performance anxiety, procrastination, and shyness but that just gives it a name, it’s not an explanation and it certainly isn’t a solution.

Perhaps there is an answer or two found in a story told by violinist, Joshua Bell, about his experience at the Stulberg International String Competition when he was twelve-years old. Much younger than the other competitors, Joshua confesses that he had low expectations of his performance and, true to his vision, he started out miserably, worse than ever before. Instead of continuing on and, in his words, “feeling lousy,” he stopped, turned to the audience and said, “I’d really like to start over.”

Believing that he had already lost the competition, he relaxed, slipped into a zone of confidence and comfort, and played the difficult piece better than ever before. He ended up finishing 3rd in the competition (1st the following year), but that was secondary to the lesson he learned about mindset and attitude. Joshua said, “…it taught me that when you take your mind off worrying about being perfect all the time, sometimes amazing things can happen…It was a turning point and a lesson I use to this day.”

The story—all by itself—is a good one. Quit trying to be perfect, none of us are. However, a closer look at what he is saying shows us something else, as well. The transformation from validating expectations of poor performance to near-perfect playing of the concerto can be found in the two words, performance and play. We don’t tell our children to go outside and perform, we tell them to go and play. In the english lexicon, the opposite of work is play. When an athletic team wins a major event like the World Series in baseball or the Super Bowl in football, the sheer glee you see in the winners jumping up and down and hugging each is a demonstration of play, not performance. They speak of the “Zone” in the same way that Joshua does. Winners focus on feelings of joy that come from within, not outside opinions or expectations…good or bad. I once had a boss who, before I headed out for a major speech or sales presentation, would always tell me to “Have fun!” All of a sudden, the anxiety would melt and I would look forward to the event. Have fun! Really? Have fun? Okay, then, I can DO THAT! I can have fun, enjoy myself, relax. I embraced those expectations without fear of failing to do so.

Perhaps the population of the Village of Someday continues to explode because we view our lives as a performance. A performance under constant scrutiny; critics standing by, pencil in hand, hoping for a mistake to chronicle. A viral YouTube embarrassment waiting to be captured and looped forever and ever.

The next time you feel hesitant about taking a risk while whispering “Someday…”  picture a moment in your life when you leapt into the air with shear joy, smiled until your face hurt, giggled uncontrollably, felt deep passionate happiness and contentment. Do that and tell me what word best describes the trigger. Work? Performance? How about, Play? Fun?

You can do as the virtuoso performer, Joshua Bell, almost did—continue on and feel  miserable—or, you can do as the twelve-year old boy, Joshua Bell, did. Stop, turn to anyone who wishes to listen and—beckoning the child within you—say, “I’d really like to start over.” And then, play. Simply play until your bones shake and your spirit lifts.

Don’t perform life…play and enjoy life, and sometimes—just like Joshua— you’ll find that amazing things can happen.


“Everything can be taken from a man or a woman but one thing: the last of human freedoms to choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances…”

– Viktor Frankl

Our dog, Chaucer, at play—I didn’t have to teach him how…

“When it comes to Wellness … Are You Committed or Just Involved: A Call for Leadership”

There isn’t a day that goes by without a dozen or so clicks to this posting. Something is resonating, so here it is again…just click, below.

Wellness: Are You Committed or Just Involved?